Snoring and sleep apnea are often the result of sleep related breathing abnormalities related to upper airway resistance which may be correctable by Dr. Tregaskes. These sleep disorders are linked to hypertension, coronary artery disease, stroke and even death. Dr. Tregaskes will use diagnostic equipment to assess whether there is restriction in your nasal passages and airway.

If a problem is identified and the patient is CPAP intolerant, Dr. Tregaskes can create an oral appliance (orthotic), allowing for maximum airway muscle strength and openness. Oral appliances are worn during sleep to prevent the collapse of the tongue and soft tissues in the back of the throat so that the airway stays open during sleep. The appliances provide adequate air intake and help people who snore and/or have sleep apnea to sleep normally.

Hypertension can result from restrictive air intake while sleeping. During sleep, the airway relaxes, losing its muscle tone and narrows or closes completely causing repeated episodes of several seconds of oxygen deprivation. Several times while sleeping, the body may reflexively wake up just enough to re-open the airway which puts added stress on the heart, and may lead to a permanent rise in blood pressure.

Coronary artery disease results from constricted arteries, which causes a drop in blood oxygen levels that raises blood pressure, and sleep time airway resistance exacerbates this potentially deadly problem. The heart is forced to work harder and the arteries become even narrower. Such a detrimental cycle will eventually lead to a heart attack.

A stroke occurs when the supply of blood and oxygen to the brain is either partially or completely cut off. The adequate flow of blood and oxygen to the brain are critical, and upper airway resistance com-pounds the risk of stroke.

There are Three Types of Sleep Apnea:

Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA): Obstructive Sleep Apnea is the most common type of sleep apnea. OSA is caused by an obstruction in the airway, which actually stops the air flow in the nose and mouth. Throat and abdominal breathing continue normally. Obstructive Sleep Apnea is commonly accompanied by snoring and causes the sleeper to wake up, gasping or snorting, and then go back to sleep again.

Central Sleep Apnea (CSA): Central Sleep Apnea is a much less common type than Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Central Sleep Apnea is due to a brain signal problem: the brain signal that instructs the body to breathe is delayed. With CSA, oral breathing and throat and abdominal breathing all cease at the same time. The periods of breathing interruption may last a few seconds, and breathing may be too shallow to provide oxygen to the blood and tissues. Central sleep apnea may be associated with irregular heartbeat, high blood pressure, heart attack, and/or stroke.

Mixed Sleep Apnea: When individuals experience a combination of the two other types of sleep apnea, Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Central Sleep Apnea, they have mixed sleep apnea.

Sleep Apnea in children:

Did you know children are also at risk of developing an obstructed airway? Have you observed restlessness, mouth breathing, snoring, or breathing pauses in your child's breathing? If your child is experiencing any of the below symptoms during sleep, they need to be evaluated for possible sleep apnea to ensure the proper diagnosis and treatment.

Here is a list of the most common signs and symptoms of obstructed airways in children along with risk factors to be aware of:

· Lingual tongue tie
· Speech impairment
· No spaces between primary teeth
· Retrognathic jaw (skeletal and dental)
· Lingually inclined teeth
· High palatal vault
· Reports of clenching or grinding
· Bed wetting
· Night terrors
· Restless sleep
· Snoring
· Allergies (nasal congestion)
· Mouth breathing (check pillow)
· Allergic shiner (dark circles under the eyes)
· Hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD)
· Loss of interest in learning
· Mood swings Sleep Apnea/Snoring

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